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Sedimentary Processes and Rocks

Terms to learn:

mechanical weathering      erosion          frost and salt wedging       abrasion
chemical weathering         exfoliation      oxidation                          hydrolysis
carbonation                      sediments      lithification                       detrital (clastic)
chemical                          shale             sandstone
conglomerate                   breccia                   chert                       cross-bedding
ripple marks                    graded bedding       mud cracks

 

Topic outline:

  1. Weathering
    1. categories
      1. mechanical
      2. chemical
    2. mineral weathering
  2. Sediments
    1. Texture
      1. Composition
      2. Size
      3. Effects of transportation
        1. rounding
        2. sorting
    2. Lithification
  3. Types of Sedimentary Rocks
    1. Detrital (clastic) 
    2. Chemical
    3. Biological
  4. Sedimentary structures
    1. Strata (beds) – bedding planes
      1. Cross-bedding
      2. Graded beds - turbidity currents)
      3. Ripple marks – symmetrical and asymmetrical
      4. Mud cracks
  5. Depositional environments
    1. Types of environments

 

Interesting places to visit:

Sedimentary structures: http://www.gpc.peachnet.edu/~pgore/geology/historical_lab/sedstructureslab.php

Photos of sedimentary structures: http://www.eos.duke.edu/ss/answers1.htm

 

When you are finished with this topic, you should be able to answer these questions:

1.      On what basis are sedimentary rocks classified?

2.      What does sorting and rounding indicate about the transportation of sediment and the energy of the depositional environment?

3.      Which sedimentary structures can indicate direction of water flow?

4.      How is graded bedding formed?

5.      What is the difference between detrital and chemical sedimentary rocks?

6.      What are the steps in lithification?

7.      What depositional environments are indicated by conglomerates? By breccias?

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