HISTORY OF AMERICAN POLICING DIVIDED INTO THREE ERAS (MORE FOLLOWS ON EACH)
• THE POLITICAL ERA
• THE REFORM ERA
• THE COMMUNITY PROBLEM-SOLVING ERA

THE POLITICAL ERA (1840 - 1930)
• CLOSE TIES BETWEEN POLICE AND POLITICIANS
• FIRST EMPHASIS ON MAKING POLITICIANS HAPPY

THE REFORM ERA (1930 – 1970)
• PROFESSIONAL CRIME FIGHTING
• POLICE RESOURCES FOCUSED ON ARRESTS

 

THE COMMUNITY PROBLEM-SOLVING ERA (1970 TO NOW)
• A PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN POLICE AGENCIES AND COMMUNITIES

STYLES OF POLICING (MORE FOLLOWS ON EACH)
  THE WATCHMAN STYLE
  THE LEGALISTIC STYLE
  THE SERVICE STYLE

THE WATCHMAN STYLE
• CONSIDERABLE USE OF POLICE DISCRETION
• MORE EMPHASIS ON CRIME CONTROL THAN CRIME PREVENTION
• COPS DISTANCED FROM THE PEOPLE THEY SERVE

THE LEGALISTIC STYLE
• LAW ENFORCEMENT IS ONLY CONCERN
• NO INTEREST IN SOCIAL PROBLEMS
• ENFORCING THE “LETTER OF THE LAW”

THE SERVICE STYLE
• POLICE SEE THEMSELVES AS HELPERS OF THE COMMUNITY IN THE WAR ON CRIME
• LEGAL SOLUTIONS NOT THE ONLY ONES
• LINKED TO THE COMMUNITY PROBLEM-SOLVING ERA

COMMUNITY POLICING
• POLICE CALLS FOR SERVICE EXCEED CALLS FOR ARRESTS

FOUR ELEMENTS OF COMMUNITY POLICING
(1) COMMUNITY-BASED CRIME PREVENTION
(2) POLICE PATROL EMPHASIZES NON-EMERGENCY SERVICES
(3) INCREASED ACCOUNTABILITY TO THE PUBLIC
(4) DECENTRALIZED COMMAND

A SHIFT IN FOCUS
• POLICE ARE NOW ONE OF MANY AGENCIES HELPING THE PUBLIC
• ARRESTS ARE LESS IMPORTANT THAN PREVENTED CRIMES
• THE CONCERNS OF THE PUBLIC ARE THE CONCERNS OF THE POLICE

CRITICISMS OF COMMUNITY POLICING
• NOT ALL POLICE WILLING TO CHANGE
• GOALS BECOME DIFFICULT TO MEASURE

SCIENTIFIC POLICE MANAGEMENT
• THE KANSAS CITY EXPERIMENT
• THE KANSAS CITY GUN EXPERIMENT
• THE MINNEAPOLIS DOMESTIC VIOLENCE EXPERIMENT
• THE NEWPORT NEWS EXPERIENCE
 

POLICE DISCRETION

    EXERCISING CHOICE

FACTORS INFLUENCING POLICE DISCRETION:
• OFFICER’S BACKGROUND
• SUSPECT’S CHARACTERISTICS
• DEPARTMENTAL POLICY
• COMMUNITY INTEREST
• PRESSURE FROM VICTIM
• DISAGREEMENT WITH THE LAW
• AVAILABLE ALTERNATIVES