Iroquois King

Hendrick

1692–1755

Lakota woman

19th century

Manuelito, Navajo

War Chief

1818–1893

John Winthrop

1588 - 1649

Anne Bradstreet

1612 - 1662

Edward Taylor

1642 - 1729

Mary Rowlandson

1637 - 1711

Jonathan Edwards

1703 - 1758

Paine

Benjamin Franklin

1706 - 1790

J. Hector St. John

de Crevecoeur

1735 - 1813

Tecumseh

1775 - 1813

Philip Freneau

1752 - 1832

Olaudah Equiano

1745? - 1797

Margaret Fuller

1810-1850

Phillis Wheatley

1753 - 1784

Washington Irving

1783 – 1859

James Fennimore

Cooper

1789 - 1851

William Cullen

Bryant

1794 - 1878

Nathaniel Hawthorne

1804 - 1864

Edgar Allan Poe

1809 - 1849

Henry David

Thoreau

1817 - 1862

Ralph Waldo

Emerson

1803 - 1882

Sojourner Truth

1797 - 1883

Frederick Douglass

1818 - 1895

Harriet Beecher

Stowe

1811 - 1896

Walt Whitman

1819 - 1892

Emily Dickinson

1830 - 1886

Herman Melville

1819 - 1831

Louisa May Alcott

1832 - 1888

timeline

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NATIVE AMERICAN  & PRE - COLONIAL

pre-1650

Iroquois Confederacy

Lakota

Navajo

The development of literary movements in American literature can be traced by

way of its recurring patterns of liberal and reactionary thinking, of rebellion and

restoration, and of reclamation and revolution.

1534, during the reign of Henry VIII, England rebels against Roman Catholicism

and separates, forming the Church of England.

1559 - 1625, the first Puritans organize as reactionary Protestants hoping to

"purify" Church of England so that it is more like European Protestantism.

PURITAN

1650 - 1700

John Winthrop 1588 - 1649

Anne Bradstreet 1612 - 1662

Mary Rowlandson 1637 - 1711

Edward Taylor 1642 - 1729

17th century, fleeing reprisal for their increasingly radical and rebellious behavior,

Puritans "self - exile" themselves to America and make themselves the dominant

colonial religion.

COLONIAL

1700 - 1750

Jonathan Edwards 1703 - 1758

Early to mid 18th century, with a gradually increasing liberal sentiment causing the

idealism Puritanism to give way to the realism of Colonial economy, and first and

second generation Americans begin embracing other more tolerant religions.

Puritan leaders react with fundamentalist "fire and brimstone."

FEDERAL (AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT)

1750 - 1800

Benjamin Franklin 1706 - 1790

J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur 1735 - 1813

Thomas Paine 1737 - 1809

Olaudah Equiano 1745? - 1797

Phillis Wheatley 1753 - 1784

Philip Freneau 1752 - 1832

Late 18th to early 19th century, Federalist common sense and capitalism make

Puritanism a vestigial philosophy.  The Revolution causes Americans to rebel

against oppressive Puritan values and to re - appropriate Classical western culture

in its own image.

NATURIST (PRE-ROMANTICISM)

1800 - 1825

[Philip Freneau 1752 - 1832]

William Cullen Bryant 1794 - 1878

Tecumseh 1775 - 1813

Early 19th century, begins with the a rejection of Reason and a return to nature, a

rediscovery of "natural law"

ROMANTIC

1825 - 1850

James Fenimore Cooper 1789 - 1851

Washington Irving 1783 – 1859

Margaret Fuller 1810-1850

Naturists culminate in the Romantics, a reactionary rejection of the classical and

familiar form and a restoration of the importance of emotion over Reason.

GOTHIC

1825 - 1850

Nathanial Hawthorne 1804 - 1864

Edgar Allan Poe 1809 - 1849

Mid 19th century, while Romanticism is flourishing, Gothic writers and artists take a

rebellious and cynical view of Romantic ideals, rejecting their motives and their

optimism about, both, external nature and human nature.

TRANSCENDENTALISM

1840 - 1860

Walt Whitman 1819 - 1892

Harriet Beecher Stowe 1811 - 1896

Frederick Douglass 1818 - 1895

Ralph Waldo Emerson 1803 - 1882

Henry David Thoreau 1817 – 1862

Sojourner Truth 1797 - 1883

Mid to late 19th century thinkers, writers and artists restore Reason to the optimism

of Romanticism, and create the revolutionary philosophy of Transcendentalism,

reinvigorating political ideology and religious spirit in the service of social change.

EARLY REALISM

1850 - 1900

Emily Dickinson 1830 - 1886

Herman Melville 1819 - 1831

Louisa May Alcott 1832 - 1888

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